Open Letter to Parents on Michigan’s “Testing Season”

Spring break is coming up and warmer days are ahead. Unfortunately, this time of year state-mandated tests bloom about as rapidly as the wildflowers. As you might guess, I do not support the growing regimen of testing that has come to define public schools and learning ever since President George W. Bush forced through his No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act. President Barack Obama poured gasoline on this fire when he used his Race to the Top initiative to force states into more rigorous but narrow curriculum and testing, and ranking schools from Top to Bottom as a result. In Michigan, our legislature has been up and down, in and out about our curriculum and requirements for testing leading to frustration and a substantial waste of our children’s classroom learning time.

Sir Richard Livingstone (1880-1960), a wise and learned British educator, found the whole enterprise of testing requirements forced on schools, teachers, and of course the students themselves, revolting and a curse against authentic learning. In a 1943 publication, he stated very succinctly his view of this type of testing.

“Something no doubt is happening; but it may not be education; it may be the administration of a poison which paralyses or at least slows down the natural activities of the healthy mind. The healthy human being, finding himself a creature of unknown capacities in an unknown world, wants to learn what the world is like, and what he should be and do in it. To help him in answering these questions is the one and only purpose of education.”

Note: In his writings, he referred to testing that is forced on schools as “examinations.” Livingstone was not against all testing admitting that the types of tests devised by the school and the teacher are necessary for measuring student progress.

All this being said, state and federal law requires that for a period of time each spring, we disrupt the learning environment and administer the Michigan Merit Exam (MME) and the SAT college entrance test along with the ACT WorkKeys to all 11th graders, the PSAT (pre-SAT) to all 9th and 10th graders, and the hotly disputed M-STEP to all 3rd through 8th graders. Students in each of those latter grade levels will take an English language arts and math test. Certain grades will also take a social studies or science test. The State Superintendent has penned a letter to parents that you can read at your leisure. Additional information is available in a two-page summary of Michigan’s high-stakes testing program titled Michigan’s Education Assessment: What It Is, What It Means, And What It Offers.

I take exception to some of the points he makes including the illusion that narrow, high-stakes testing will lead Michigan to become a “Top 10 education state.” If we truly were interested in that, our first focus would be on equitable school funding while we develop more holistic, local assessments that measure student growth not only in content, but also in the very critical skills of collaboration, communication, critical thinking, creative innovation and confidence. But there is no statewide effort being made in this direction despite the overwhelming research and examples across the country that support my position. Below is a chart that serves as sort of a rubric as to what our learning and assessments should measure.

Becoming Brilliant

Source: Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Ph.D., and Kathy Hirsh-Pasek Ph.D. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-author-speaks/201608/becoming-brilliant

The most important thing parents and students can remember going into the spring testing weeks is that they are just tests and just one small, narrow measure of a child’s real learning in school. Each and every day your child comes home from school and most often can talk about something exciting he or she did that day, or something they might have learned. Most of that will never be tested but all of it is important to life’s journey and that’s why we stress at Godfrey-Lee the 6C’s of learning illustrated in the table above. How will the SAT or M-STEP ever measure those critical learning skills? They won’t. Economy and efficiency drive our state and federal testing machines and mass-produced, standardized tests cannot adequately measure most of the skills your child will learn throughout their K-12 years.

Never the less, there are some things you as a parent can do to assist your child through this annual testing cycle. Those are in the graphic below and I provide them not as an endorsement for this type of testing but in hopes they might ease your concerns and help you reduce testing stress in your child.

If you have any questions regarding the upcoming testing, please don’t hesitate to get in touch with and talk to your child’s teachers, principal, or me. We are all going to do our best to ensure testing goes smoothly for everyone and that any useful results we might receive be not only communicated with you but also inform our district’s strategic human-centered design work.

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This will be the final time I write to you as superintendent about my concerns with over-testing our kids since I will be retiring at the close of this school year. I will admit that I’m disappointed that many of my efforts the past nine years to reduce, eliminate, or even re-direct testing towards more useful purposes have fallen flat. Our legislature, due in part to a failed policy of “term-limits” in Michigan, has focused mainly on their individual agendas, or has fallen influence to outside money and lobbyists who do not have the best interests of your child or your public schools in mind. I can tell you that despite retirement, my efforts will continue through other channels to work towards ending the standardization movement, the inequity of Michigan’s school funding, and the efforts by extremists to close public schools and put an end to public education.

With my utmost sincerity,

David

Post script: By the way, much of the nonsense with state-mandated, narrow, standardized testing has been driven by the wildly absurd myth that our public schools are failing. There are mounds of evidence that prove this wrong but the mainstream, corporate-owned media tends to fall in line with the wealthy promoters of this rot. I would suggest you take the time this weekend or during your spring break to read “U.S. Public Schools Are Not Failing. They’re Among The Best In The World.”

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August School Starting Date: Frequently Asked Questions

UPDATE: List of starting dates by districts has been updated.

I previously announced the decision by our Board of Education to begin the 2017-18 school year on Monday, August 21. This is the result of a county-wide waiver request from the Department of Education to begin the year prior to Labor Day. You can read more about that decision in my previous post: 2017-18 School Calendar.

Below are responses to frequently asked questions regarding this decision. These questions come from throughout the county so some may not pertain to our decision to begin on August 21:

Why are some schools within Kent ISD starting the 2017-18 school year before Labor Day?

  • The 20 school districts served by Kent ISD asked Kent ISD to petition the Michigan Department of Education for approval to start before Labor Day because so many districts, and students, are involved in early and middle college programs. Student participation in these programs is much easier if their school start times align with college start times.

What programs are these?

  • The Kent Career Tech Center features many programs that have embedded college opportunities for students, but two – the Health Sciences Early College Academy, which is aligned with Grand Valley State University, and the Hospitality Fellowship program, with Ferris State University – require concurrent enrollment in high school and college programs. In addition, Cedar Springs, Kenowa Hills, Rockford and Wyoming all have early/middle college programs that require students to have class calendars that align with the college they are attending.
  • In addition, Kent ISD and Grand Rapids Community College recently announced the creation of “Launch U,” an exciting new middle college program that will offer participating students three career preparation options for the rapidly expanding advanced manufacturing corporations in West Michigan. These programs offer the opportunity to earn an industry recognized credential or a specialized associates’ degree in a high skill, high wage field such as industrial technology.

Why do schools want all students to start before Labor Day if just some attend early college programs?

  • Creating a calendar that allows students to complete their entire first semester of study prior to their holiday break is very beneficial to students, as they can focus on their coursework and complete end-of-term tests before taking a break. This is the norm in college and should be the norm in secondary schools, as it is beneficial to the student.   Having a uniform start for students of all ages is more convenient for families, as many rely on older siblings to care for their younger brothers and sisters after school.

Which districts are starting before Labor Day?

  • Nine districts and the Kent ISD are starting the week of August 21. They are Comstock Park,  Grandville, Godwin Heights, Godfrey Lee, Kentwood, Kent City, Lowell, Wyoming and Thornapple Kellogg.
  • Six districts are starting on August 28. They are Caledonia, Forest Hills, Grand Rapids, Kenowa Hills, Northview and Rockford.
  • Five districts are starting on September 5, which is the Tuesday after Labor Day. They are Byron Center, Cedar Springs, East Grand Rapids, Kelloggsville and Sparta.

Why are some choosing to remain with the post-Labor Day start?

  • All petitioned Kent ISD to seek approval from the Michigan Department of Education for a pre-Labor Day start but some, because of construction or bargaining agreements were not able to start before Labor Day for the 2017-18 school year.

Is this the new normal? I thought there was a “common calendar.”

  • Districts are in a transition period. The Michigan Department of Education waiver allowing a pre-Labor Day start came when some already had plans in place for construction or a contract that called for a post-Labor Day start. We are working toward a common start date in future years as we recognize this is best for families. Under statute, the “common” portion of the calendar relates to holiday and spring breaks. All schools throughout the ISD will have substantially similar holiday and spring breaks.

My student attends programs at the Tech Center and our school does not start until after Labor Day. Will he/she still have the same programming as the students who started earlier?

  • The Tech Center and local districts will make every effort to provide transportation and/or other accommodations such as online programming to make sure no student misses instruction due to the staggered start to the school year among Kent ISD districts.

My student attends a special education center program. Will he/she have programming even if my school district is not in session?

  • Yes, we will follow the Individual Education Program in all aspects. Transportation will be provided if it is specified within the IEP.

What happens if I have already made plans for a family vacation in the two weeks before Labor Day and my school district is now starting early?

  • Please meet with the building principal and discuss what you can do to ensure your child does not fall behind. All will work with their students and families to make sure students have every opportunity to keep up with their classmates and do not miss important programming that could set them behind.
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Adult ELL Education Program Cited for Gains

Our commitment to educational excellence and the welfare of families in our community extends beyond our traditional K-12 students!Screen Shot 2017-03-10 at 9.08.58 AM

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Finalists for Superintendent

The Board of Education interviewed four candidates this past week and has selected two for a second interview:

  • Dr. Carlos Lopez, Director of Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment in Plymouth-Canton Community Schools
  • Ms. Tamika Henry, Principal at New Options High School in the Allendale Public School System

Interviews will be held during a special board meeting open to the public on Monday, March 20, starting at 6:30 pm in the Early Childhood Center multi-purpose room.

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One More Time on Equity in School Funding

You know from many of my previous postings on this site as well as my personal blog (Rebel 6 Ramblings) that our state legislature and governor continue to perpetuate a very inequitable system of providing classroom funding for Michigan’s public schools. We know, especially here at Godfrey-Lee where a very dedicated teaching staff provides effective educational services for a large percentage of students struggling with the English language (EL) or dealing with the impacts of poverty in their lives, that our state funding does not provide adequate access to equitable programs and supports to ensure every student has a chance for high-level academic success. Our legislature knows it as well but turns a blind eye in favor of providing tax cuts for businesses or avoiding personal tax increases in a state where we just learned achievement growth is lowest in the nation and all around us we see our infrastructure crumbling.

 

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http://www.cbpp.org/research/state-budget-and-tax/after-nearly-a-decade-school-investments-still-way-down-in-some-states

Meanwhile, there are school districts throughout Kent County and Michigan financially capable of adding new and innovative programs designed to prepare their students, many of which come from affluent families and communities, for college and 21st century careers. A sizeable number of those districts which not only receive more classroom funding, do not have to spend nearly as much on interventions and supports designed to close the learning gaps of students who fell behind because of poverty, EL or other obstacles. They are free to spend greater numbers of dollars on STEM (science, technology, engineering, math), robotics, arts, and a whole host of higher level learning and dual college programs that continue to widen the opportunity gap for kids across Kent County and Michigan.

Better funding for schools leads to better long-term outcomes for students, a careful study concludes. ~ Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

It’s not just the inequity of classroom funding but also our inequitable system of funding capital improvements. Godfrey-Lee has one of the lowest state-equalized-evaluations (SEV) per student in Michigan primarily due to our lack of industrial or large commercial properties as well as lower assessments on residential property. What this means is that when considering bonding for improvements, upgrades, or replacement of our educational facilities to support 21st century learning, including the addition of sorely-needed air conditioning for extended year programs or consideration of a balanced-calendar, the amount of funding available from local property taxes to pay for bonds does not come close to comparing with other area school districts.

School Districts with Lowest SEV per pupil (>1000 enrollment) County SEV Per Pupil in $
Carrollton Public Schools SAGINAW 31,253
Godfrey-Lee Public Schools KENT 47,927
Bendle Public Schools GENESEE 54,896
Hamtramck, School District of the City of WAYNE 56,799
Harper Woods, The School District of the City of WAYNE 60,846
Oak Park, School District of the City of OAKLAND 66,427
Hazel Park, School District of the City of OAKLAND 69,491
Westwood Heights Schools GENESEE 71,002
Dearborn Heights School District #7 WAYNE 71,174
Vandercook Lake Public Schools JACKSON 73,213
Oakridge Public Schools MUSKEGON 76,762
Mt. Morris Consolidated Schools GENESEE 77,657
School Districts with Highest SEV per pupil (>1000 enrollment) County SEV Per Pupil in $
Elk Rapids Schools ANTRIM 702,932
Charlevoix Public Schools CHARLEVOIX 701,471
Roscommon Area Public Schools ROSCOMMON 643,255
Bloomfield Hills Schools OAKLAND 599,495
Birmingham Public Schools OAKLAND 549,964
Houghton Lake Community Schools ROSCOMMON 540,979
Ludington Area School District MASON 499,552
Benzie County Central Schools BENZIE 494,790
Oscoda Area Schools IOSCO 479,544
Public Schools of Petoskey EMMET 477,500
Pontiac City School District OAKLAND 473,048
Royal Oak Schools OAKLAND 454,228

The chart above lists the twelve districts with the lowest SEV per pupil (top) and the twelve districts with the highest SEV per pupil (bottom). In both cases, only districts with 1,000 or more enrolled students are included.  Source: Michigan Bulletin 1014 for 2015-16 school year available at www.mi.gov/mde

One more example of the inequity in local school bonding capacity is to make a quick comparison between our district and Rockford Public Schools using total debt millage figures from 2016 (obtained from www.msbo.org):

District SEV Per Pupil Debt Millage Rate $$ Per Pupil
Godfrey-Lee $47,927 12.59 $603.40
Rockford $198,680 8.5 $1,688.78

So in short, Godfrey-Lee would have to increase our debt millage nearly three times as much to generate the same number of dollars per pupil, something that even if possible would be a substantial burden on home and small business owners in our district.

Instructional and Operating Funds

I’ve laid out the problem in general terms but let’s take a closer look at how inequitable our Michigan public school funding system really is.

First of all, it’s important to know the sources of funding we receive to operate our school district and provide classrooms and highly-qualified teachers for our students:

  • Foundation allowance: this is the largest portion of our funding and it comes from a combination of local property taxes combined with an appropriation by our state legislature. Our current foundation allowance is $7,511 per student which is the minimum appropriated by the state. The chart below shows our annual foundation allowance for each year going back to 1995 when voters through “Proposal A” put the full responsibility for school funding on our state legislature.

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The graph above illustrates the growing gap between the real $$ provided through the foundation allowance and the value when adjusted for inflation, or increasing costs, since 1995. It also shows the inconsistency in the politically motivated appropriations process where school districts are left wondering if they will have less funding or more each year. The green line at the bottom illustrates how the value of per pupil school funding has steadily declined despite the claim by Lansing politicians that they have increased funding for K-12 education (we now call that “fake news”). The following graph from the House Fiscal Agency shows the same gap across the state as nominal dollars fail to keep up with inflation:

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  • Districts receive other state funding through grants, the largest being at-risk (31A) and special education funding. These and other smaller grants are restricted to programs and services that support specific students. For example, at-risk funding can only be used for qualifying students to help provide supports in core subject areas (primarily math and reading). These are important funds but they cannot be broadly used to operate the district, school or classroom other than instructional supports to the student. As one example, these funds cannot be used to pay the light or other utility bills necessary to provide a suitable classroom for that student. They also cannot be used to maintain or repair buildings or purchase up-to-date lab equipment for science or technology courses.
  • Districts receive federal funding that varies depending on socio-economic, demographic, or special needs of students. These are what are referred to as “Title” funds and are targeted towards specific students. They have many of the same restrictions, or often even greater restrictions, as the state funds indicated above. Food service funds for providing free or reduced price breakfast and lunch programs based on federal poverty indicators are a separate category.
  • Bonds and what we call “sinking funds” are voter-approved local funds that depend on the number of “mils” approved by voters and the value of property within the district. These cannot be used for any school or classroom operations, instructional materials, salaries or benefits and are strictly limited to capital improvements, maintenance or repair of facilities, and the purchase of technology. I wrote above about the limitations in our district to this type of funding due to having the second lowest per-pupil property valuation (SEV) in the state. This means a one-mil bond or sinking fund approved by the voters would generate 1 dollar for every $1,000 of property value. In our district, using the chart above, it would generate approximately $47 per pupil while in Elk Rapids, it would generate $702 per pupil, approximately fifteen times as much for each mil.

For comparison of the inequity in combined local, state and federal revenues (not including bonds or sinking funds), I’ve created the following two tables. In the first table, using 2015-16 financial data from the Michigan Bulletin 1014, I compare Godfrey-Lee with districts in Kent County that receive more revenue per pupil. Also provided is the rank for per-pupil funding in comparison to all districts and charter schools in Michigan.

School District Total Revenue Per Pupil State Rank
Grand Rapids 11,788 93
Godwin Heights 11,296 113
Northview 10,860 146
Forest Hills 10,539 183
Kent City 10,493 190
Kentwood 10,361 207
Kelloggsville 10,323 212
Wyoming 10,318 214
Godfrey-Lee 10,208 243

As you can see, the difference per pupil between Godfrey-Lee and the other districts ranges from a low of $110 to a high of $1,580. To be fair, some of the local funds may include grants from foundations or businesses for specific school improvement projects. Nonetheless, every dollar per pupil difference, particularly between districts with higher and lower levels of at-risk and EL students, adds to the inequity of opportunity.

One additional comparison that is important more so than comparing districts within Kent County, is to look at our per-pupil funding compared to the four Oakland County school districts listed as having some of the highest property values in Michigan from the table above.

School District Total Revenue Per Pupil State Rank
Pontiac 17,846 30
Bloomfield Hills 15,591 38
Birmingham 14,558 44
Royal Oak 11,188 118

In this comparison, Godfrey-Lee received anywhere from $980 to $7,638 per student for the 2015-16 school year. Bloomfield and Birmingham, both considered home to very affluent families, averaged $4,866 more per pupil than Godfrey-Lee, probably one of the greatest indicators of how inequitable Michigan’s school funding system is.

Will Equity Improve?

While it may and has improved, equality let alone equity is unlikely to be achieved within my lifetime. K-12 funding is totally dependent on the political process and every two years, we have a new cast of characters in Lansing with their own personal and party agendas. Schools have not been a substantial part of that agenda except to enact policies that make it more difficult to operate. But just for kicks, let’s compare revenue over the years for Godfrey-Lee and Bloomfield Hills just comparing the major source of funding — the foundation allowance — since 2011-12.

School District School Year 2011-12 Foundation School Year 2016-17 Foundation Ave. Annual Increase
Bloomfield Hills 11,854 12,064 42
Godfrey-Lee 7,004 7,511 101
Difference 4,850 4,553 59

From the figures in the above table, the difference in the average annual increase between the two districts is $59 per pupil. In other words, Godfrey-Lee has gained ground on Bloomfield Hills at the rate of $59 per year since 2011-12. As of 2016-17, assuming a similar rate of annual increases (which may or may not occur at the whim of the legislature and governor), which by the way don’t even keep up with inflation, it will take 77 more years before both districts are receiving an equal foundation allowance (and equal, by the way, is not equitable). So we’re talking the year 2094, maybe. Few if any of us other than the youngest kids will be around to find out.

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As for equity itself, where equity is defined as the funding levels necessary to provide the supports for each student, regardless of their circumstances such as poverty, zip code, language barriers, special needs, etc., so that each has an equitable opportunity to pursue the same educational outcomes, it’s becoming more and more unlikely that will ever happen. This past June, a report was issued at the request of the state legislature to determine what it costs to educate a child in Michigan. Titled the “Michigan Education Finance Study” conducted by the firm of Augenblick, Palaich and Associates, the study, although incomplete because it did not factor in special education costs, concluded the following regarding per pupil funding:

  • Districts that receive the base foundation allowance should receive an immediate increase to $8,667 (compared to the $7,511 currently received by Godfrey-Lee) to provide an adequate education for all students
  • Funding for at-risk students should be increased by 30%
  • Funding for ELL students should be increased by 40%

If our legislature had the moral will to fund K-12 public education at an adequate and equitable level, these recommendations would increase revenues for students in our district by an additional $5,172 per pupil providing more equal (not equitable) funding when compared for instance to Bloomfield Hills. Total increased costs for the state under this recommendation would be around $4 billion, which, while it seems high, compares favorably with the fact that our current statewide taxation versus personal wealth gap is in the neighborhood of $10 billion. So it’s doable.

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This is my last opportunity as a K-12 superintendent to rail against the inequitable public school funding system in Michigan and it’s continuing negative impact on school districts like ours. Equitable funding for schools that serve majority populations of low income and EL students is critical not only for those children and their communities, but for Michigan itself as we seek not only to be a Top 10 in 10 education state, but one that provides a highly educated citizenry to drive our economy and general welfare. In short, school districts like Godfrey-Lee with adequate and equitable funding can help meet these goals as they:

  • Compete with other districts for recruitment and retention of high quality educational leaders and teachers in every classroom.
  • Provide teachers and school administrators with greater opportunities for embedded professional learning and coaching.
  • Provide for lower class sizes, as in many of the affluent districts, that will help strengthen the teacher-student relationship and give greater attention to individual students who need it more.
  • Replace or significantly upgrade outdated school structures to provide more flexible learning spaces and a comfortable learning environment no matter what time of year it might be.
  • Provide greater access to college and career counselors who can work with families that may have never experienced college life.
  • Give greater access for students to STEM and high-level courses that are both challenging and engaging.
  • Provide a healthy and inspiring mix of electives and extra-curricular activities including the arts, technology, life-skills, athletics, service learning, and leadership development.
  • Give students more opportunities for field trips and travel that expand their awareness of different cultures, the workings of government, careers, and the environment.
  • Give students, their teachers, and their families a greater sense of worth, a feeling that they are valued just as much by our state as wealthier families in more affluent school districts, because our state legislature treats them as a priority through the appropriations process.

I probably could have a lot more to say on this, but over the past nearly nine years as superintendent, I’ve exhausted pretty much all there is to say. The ball is really in Lansing’s court and it remains to be seen if our district’s kids will ever be treated equitably.

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Strong Schools, Strong Communities – Update

This is a continuation of my previous post on the topic of the Kent ISD Regional Enhancement Millage that voters will be asked to decide on Tuesday, May 9.

Strong Schools, Strong Communities: Kent ISD Regional Enhancement Millage 2017

The Strong Schools, Strong Communities committee has posted a link to a website that will provide more details: http://www.kentisd.org/parents–community/strong-schools-strong-communities/

Flyers in English and Spanish:

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2017-18 School Calendar

Kent County ISD, which includes 19 other school districts besides ours, requested and received approval to begin the school year prior to Labor Day. Many of you may recall that every school district in Michigan did so prior to 2008.

The reason for the waiver to begin prior to Labor Day is based on what our county believes is best for our students. There are a number of valid reasons for the change back to this earlier start date including alignment with local colleges that provide our students with early college and dual enrollment opportunities. We also believe that this is the beginning of a longer process of adopting a more balanced “year-round” calendar which would provide a shorter summer break and other breaks during the school year. One thing to remember, however, is that no matter how the calendar is structured, we are required by law to provide 180 days of school that include a minimum of 1,098 hours of scheduled instruction. This is true for all Michigan public and charter schools.

At the last Board of Education meeting, the Board approved a start date for students of Monday, August 21, 2017. We are currently in negotiations with our teachers and support staff as to the rest of the calendar, but I wanted you to have this date to be able to make plans for August. I can also tell you that school will end earlier in June than it has the past several years. I will get the full calendar out to you as soon as the new calendar is ready for Board ratification. I’m hoping that is as early as next week.

State law also requires the county to be on a consistent calendar for Thanksgiving, Winter and Spring breaks. Therefore, I can provide the following to you for any planning you might be doing over those holiday/vacation periods:

Thanksgiving Break:  Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, November 22 – 24, 2017

Christmas/New Year Break (Winter): Begins after school on Friday, December 22, 2017 and school resumes on Monday, January 8, 2018

Spring Break: Begins after school on Thursday, March 29, 2018 and school resumes on Monday, April 9, 2018

You may read or hear that other districts are starting later than us. That’s probably true as each district had different circumstances to consider for this coming year. Several already had contracts with their unions that included a calendar with a post-Labor Day start. Others have major construction issues going on in their districts that need more time this summer to be sure their schools are ready for students. The waiver from the state is good for three (3) years and it’s the intent of all districts to be on a similar county-wide calendar at some point during that period. Kent ISD KCTC, KTC, KIH and regional programs will begin the week of August 21.

Here are the links to a couple of local news reports about the early start decision. I do want to point out that they are not consistent with each other on some of the details regarding when different districts are starting, but they provide more rationale as to why this is a valid decision based on the needs of students.

Kent County students to begin next school year in August

Kent County schools’ summer break getting cut

Winter break is back, while summer is cut short for some West Michigan students

I also thought you might be interested in two graphs that illustrate the average temperatures in June and August for the Grand Rapids area.

 

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Average Weather In June For Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA

Source: https://weatherspark.com/averages/30405/6/Grand-Rapids-Michigan-United-States

 

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Average Weather In August For Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA

Source: https://weatherspark.com/averages/30405/8/Grand-Rapids-Michigan-United-States

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